Department of Education

English as an Additional Language or Dialect


Primary Literacy

Purpose of Each Component

Previewing the Day

The teacher reads through the Learning Agenda for the day taking the opportunity to remind students of what happens in each activity and what is expected of them as effective learners. This will involve explanations from different students about what is required of them with reference to class charts that have been developed collaboratively with the class over time. These charts will emphasise what effective learners do; i.e. ‘Y charts’. This component provides the opportunity to reinforce particular behaviours, draw attention to strategies that students have learnt and are working well, and remind them about the class learning goals.

The emphasis for the Teacher Reading part of this component is on enjoyment of the text with no real demands being placed on students other than engagement. This is not shared reading – that will come later in the Literacy Session. Selection of an appropriate text is critical to the success of this element. It will be selected for a range of different reasons, i.e.: engaging topic/ theme, connections to books previously read, connections to the life of the community, a favourite author. The teacher will discuss the reason for selection of the text and engage in some ‘think alouds’ that model typical literate activity with a book i.e. ‘I wonder what is going to happen next?’ On some occasions the book selected may be read as a serial, continuing over two or three days, to create the feeling of anticipation and provide the opportunity to review, predict and verify.

Print Walk

The Print Walk provides the opportunity to revise and consolidate learning about SAE through engaging with print around the room in a purposeful way. The focus for the print walk could be at a whole text level, a sentence level or at a word or letter level. As part of this activity, students may sing through a charted song or rap and then perhaps identify some rhyming words or words starting with particular letters. Alternatively they may engage in a word or phrase hunt using print around the room.
Clearly the success of this activity is dependent on the development of a print rich classroom where the charts, posters, labels etc have been constructed collaboratively with the students over time.

Shared Reading

The Shared Reading component involves the students in demonstrations of what effective readers know and do before, during and after reading. The focus is on modelling reading strategies, usually from an enlarged text. During the initial reading of the text, the teacher makes explicit the knowledge and skills a reader uses in order to read and make meaning from a text. This is achieved through the modelled reading of the text and ‘think alouds’ where the teacher verbalises thoughts about particular aspects of the reading process at whole text, sentence and word levels. The text is read several times by the teacher while students focus on a teacher-selected aspect of the text, e.g., the use of rhyme, a letter-sound which is a current focus, the use of headings to mark new sections in an informational text or a pivotal aspect of the plot in a narrative. Following several readings of the text the students are invited to read along with the teacher.
In preparing for the Shared Reading component, teachers need to select a particular focus for their modelling and interactions with the text to ensure that students’ knowledge and skills are being systematically developed. This selection will be informed by student needs. It is important that the independent learning task relating to the shared reading text is designed to reinforce the focus for the lesson.

Guided Reading

Guided Reading involves students in supported individual reading of a text. The teacher works with small groups of students (no more than six) using multiple copies of a text. During the guided reading component, the teacher scaffolds the students’ reading through prompts, questioning, reminders and positive feedback to reinforce successful processing strategies.

The decision on which method of Guided Reading to use will depend on the needs and developmental stage of the students.


In the Writing component, the teacher models writing a text in front of students using a ‘think aloud’ process. The focus for the modelled writing will be determined by students’ needs and the teacher’s understanding of Writing statements at the appropriate level of the ESL/ESD Progress Map and the Australian Curriculum. During this component, the teacher will explicitly model the processes and strategies effective writers use as they compose a text, learning and applying conventions at a whole text level, a sentence level and at a word level. The students then return to their seats and engage in a designated writing task. This task should link to the modelled writing activity, e.g., writing a list of all the characters from the shared reading text, writing a journal entry about a book, writing a frame ‘poem’.

Plenary Session

The Plenary Session focuses on student learning from the morning session. Students have the opportunity to discuss, explain, demonstrate and reflect on what they have learned in the session.
The success of this component is dependent on students’ understanding of what is required of them in sharing their work and responding to the work of others. These understandings and behaviours will be built up over time through teacher modelling and reinforcement of appropriate response.

| Next page
Primary Literacy

All contents copyright Government of Western Australia, unless otherwise stated.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are advised that this site may contain images of people who are deceased.

Copyright material available on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) licence
Exclusions may apply: